The Deep Structure of Values: How Grammar Determines Attitude
Inglehart’s syndrome of Self-Expression Values shows robust correlations with a bundle of grammar features that emerged in European vernaculars over the Middle Ages. This ﬁnding implies that Self-Expression basically represents a contemporary version of Western subjectivism, which predated Industrialism by several centuries. Generalised Trust, however, shows a negative correlation with Linguistic Subjectivism, except for those languages which use quasi-argumental subject pronouns to convey a universalist cognitive scope of awareness (e.g., English). Quasi-argumental pronouns integrate the speaker’s and hearer’s perspectives into a new, overarching kind of discourse subjectivity, which facilitates respect and cooperation among speakers. In a nutshell, grammar constitutes social capital.